• Nov 17, 2013

As I do from time to time, I've recently been taking another stab at a standard model framework for my XPage apps. My latest one has been proving its worth in a couple apps I've been writing lately, and I'd like to go over the general goals and advantages of the way it works.

The framework is focused on a couple main ideas:

  • Low Overhead. The Java language requires a certain amount of overhead to get anything done, but I want to minimize that. The task of defining a new model object consists of two classes: one for the object itself and one for the collection manager (e.g. connecting to Domino views), and each is geared towards only writing the code required to describe the necessities.
  • Embracing XSP. The framework is intended for writing XPages apps, and so I want to make sure it works smoothly with EL and standard controls like inputs, repeats, and view panels.
  • Embracing document databases. Since I use almost entirely a document database for storage, I want to make sure to take advantage of that, and that primarily means flexibility in data modeling. Accordingly, data objects allow arbitrary field access, with any strictures from your model class layered on top of that.
  • Embracing Domino. Since the document database I use is Domino, I want to make sure its peculiar features are retained as well: reader/author fields, arbitrary object storage via MIME, (ideally) RT and attachments, full-text search, categorized views, and so forth.
  • Conceptually simple. Though there's some ugly code involved in parts like the Domino view wrapper, the conceptual layout of the framework is kept very simple with few moving parts, making it easy to recognize the function of each aspect at a glance, whether when building it, when looking at another's code, or when returning to your own code months down the line.

For this post, I'll give an example of a model class, while later I'll go into the collection managers and some real-use examples. This is what a basic model class looks like:

package model;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;

import org.openntf.domino.*;

import frostillicus.model.AbstractDominoModel;
import frostillicus.model.DominoColumnInfo;

public class Request extends AbstractDominoModel {
	private static final long serialVersionUID = 589766180414699322L;

	public Request(final Database database) {
		setValue("Form", "Request");

	public Request(final ViewEntry entry, final List<DominoColumnInfo> columnInfo) {
		super(entry, columnInfo);

	public Request(final Document doc) {

	protected Collection<String> nonSummaryFields() {
		return Arrays.asList(new String[] { "Body" });


There's more Java overhead than I'd like, but that's the name of the game. Fortunately, each method has a role and can be used as hooks for differing behavior.

The first constructor is the one used to create a new document of the appropriate type in the provided database, so it sets the form field appropriately - it would also set any other appropriate defaults. The second constructor is used when traversing a view - model objects pull values from view entries when available, but also transparently pass along requests to the document when the requested field isn't in the view. The final constructor wraps an existing document.

The "nonSummaryFields" method is one of the hooks available to define the Domino data model, in this case providing a list of fields that should be flagged as non-summary when written, to help work around Domino limits. I also have hooks, not needed here, for authors/readers/names fields and form-style query/post events.

Conspicuously absent are any field definitions. By default, model objects act much like XPage DominoDocuments, passing setValue and getValue calls on to the underlying document more or less directly. However, the framework allows for hooks here by writing getters and setters in the standard format, and their presence changes the behavior of getValue and setValue. When just a getter is present, the field becomes read-only; when a setter is present, the field can be written, but now does data-type validation. The getters and setters allow for arbitrary validation and additional behavior for specific fields (say, changing related fields when one changes) without having to write out giant blocks of "getFoo() { return foo; }" and "setFoo(String foo) { this.foo = foo; }", and this has been a huge win for me. Even though Eclipse helps with the initial creation, the code still has to exist, and it takes a cognitive toll.

I also use these overriding methods to create relations between models through their collection managers. For example:

public Client getClient() {
	String clientId = (String)getValue("ClientID");
	if(clientId == null || clientId.isEmpty()) {
		return null;
	return (Client)JSFUtil.getClientManager().getValue(clientId);

This allows for XPage El bindings like #{task.client.name} - no extra panels with data sources, no inline lookup code.

Next time, I will go into the collection-manager side, which provides fairly high-performance access to views while remaining simple and flexible.

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