• Dec 8, 2014

This past weekend, I decided to take a crack at Maven-izing the frostillic.us Framework (I should really update the README on there). If you're not familiar with it, Maven is a build system for Java projects, basically an alternative to the standard Eclipse way of doing things that we've all gotten pretty used to. Though I'm not in a position to be a strong advocate of it, I know that it has advantages in dependency-resolution and popularity (most Java projects seem to include a "you can get this from Maven Central" bit in their installation instructions), helps with the sort of continuous-integration stuff I think we're looking to do at OpenNTF, and has something of a "wave of the future" vibe to it, at least for our community: IBM's open-source releases have all been Maven-ized.

A month or so ago, Nathan went through something of a trial by fire Maven-izing the OpenNTF Domino API (present in the dev branches). Converting an existing project can be something of a bear, scaling exponentially with the complexity of the original project. Fortunately, thanks to his (and others', like Roland's) work, the ODA is nicely converted and was useful as a template for me.

In my case, the Framework is a much-simpler project: a single plugin, a feature, and an update site. It was almost a textbook example of how to Maven-ize an OSGi plugin, except for three dependencies: on the ODA, on the Extension Library, and, as with both of those, on the underlying Domino/XPages plugins. Fortunately, my laziness on the matter paid off, since not only is the ODA Maven-ized, but IBM has put their Maven-ized ExtLib right on GitHub and, better still, released a packaged Maven repository of the required XSP framework components. So everything was in place to make my journey smooth. It was, however, not smooth, and I have a set of hastily-scrawled notes that I will translate into a recounting of the hurdles I faced.

Preparing for the Journey

First off, if you're going to Maven-ize a project, you'll need a few things. If it's an XPages project, you'll likely need the above-linked IBM Domino Update Site. This should go, basically, "somewhere on your drive". IBM seems to have adopted the convention internally of putting it in C:\updateSite. However, since I use a good computer, I have no C drive and this didn't apply to me - instead, I adopted a strategy seen in projects like this one, where the path is defined in a variable. This is a good introduction to a core concept with Maven: it's basically a parallel universe to Eclipse. This nature takes many forms, ranging from its off-and-on interaction with the workspace to its naming scheme for everything; Eclipse's built-in Maven tools are a particularly-thin wrapper around the command-line environment. But for now the thing to know is that this environment variable is not an Eclipse variable; it comes from Maven's settings.xml, which is housed at ~/.m2/settings.xml. It doesn't exist by default, so I made a new one:

<settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
      xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
      xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0
                          http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">

    <profiles>
        <profile>
            <id>main</id>
            <properties>
                <notes-platform>file:///Users/jesse/Documents/Java/IBM/UpdateSite</notes-platform>
            </properties>
        </profile>
    </profiles>
    <activeProfiles>
        <activeProfile>main</activeProfile>
    </activeProfiles>
</settings>

I'm not sure that that's the best way to do it, but it works. The gist of it is that you can fill in the properties block with arbitrarily-named environment variables.

Secondly, you'll need a decent tutorial. I found this one and its followups to do well. Not everything fit (I didn't treat the update site the same way), but it was a good starting point. In particular, you'll need Tycho, which is explained there. Tycho is a plugin to Maven that gives it some knowledge of Eclipse/OSGi plugin development.

Third, you'll need some examples. Now that my Framework is converted, you can use that, and the projects linked above are even better (albeit more complex). There were plenty of times where my troubleshooting just involved looking at my stuff and figuring out where it was different from the others.

Finally, if your experience ends up anything like mine, you'll want something like this.

Prepping Dependencies

Since my project depended on the ExtLib and ODA, I had to get those in the local repository first. As I found, it's not enough to merely have the projects built in your workspace, as it is when doing non-Maven OSGi development - they have to be "installed" in your local repository (~/.m2/repository). Though the Extension Library is larger, it's slightly easier to do. I cloned the ExtLib repository (technically, I cloned my fork of it) and imported the projects into the Eclipse workspace using Import → Maven → Existing Maven Projects. By pointing that to the repository root, I got a nice Maven tree of the projects and imported them all into a new working set. Maven, like many things, likes to use a tree structure for its projects; this allows it to know about module dependencies and provides inheritance of configuration (there's a LOT of configuration, so this helps). Unfortunately, Eclipse doesn't represent this hierarchy in the Project Explorer; though you can see the other projects inside the container projects, they also appear on their own, so you get this weird sort of doubled-up effect and you just have to know what the top-level project you want is. In this case, it's named well: com.ibm.xsp.extlib.parent.

So once you've found that in the sea of other projects (incidentally, this is why I like to click on the little triangle on top of the Project Explorer view and set Top Level Elements to Working Sets), there's one change to make, unless you happened to put the Update Site from earlier at C:\updateSite. If you didn't, open up the pom.xml file (that's the main Maven config file for each project) and change the url on line 28 to <url>${notes-platform}</url>. After that, you can right-click the project and go to Run As → Maven Install. If it prompts you with some stuff, do what the tutorial above does ("install verify" or something). This is an aspect of the thin wrapper: though you're really building, the Maven tasks take the form of Run Configurations. You just have to get used to it.

Once you do that, maybe it'll work! You'll get a console window that pops up and runs through a slew of fetching and building tasks. If all goes well, there'll be a cheery "BUILD SUCCESS" near the bottom. If not, it'll be time for troubleshooting. The first step for any Maven troubleshooting is to right-click the project and go to Maven → Update Project, check all applicable projects, and let it do its thing. You'll be doing that a lot - it's your main go-to "this is weird" troubleshooting step, like Project → Clean for a misbehaving XPage app. If the build still fails, it's likely a problem with your Update Site location. Um, good luck.

Next up comes the ODA, if you're using that. As before, it's best to clone the repository from GitHub (using one of the dev branches, like Nathan's or mine) and import the Maven projects. There's good news and bad news compared to the ExtLib. The good news is that it already uses ${notes-platform} for the repository location, so you're set there. The bad news is that trying to install from the main domino parent project doesn't work - it fails on the update site for some reason. So instead, I had to install each part in turn. In particular, you'll need "externals" (covers a lot of dependencies), "org.openntf.junit4xpages", "org.openntf.formula", and "org.openntf.domino".

Converting the Projects

Okay! So, now we can actually start! For the plugin project, the first page of the tutorial works word-for-word. One thing to note is that the "eclipse-plugin" option isn't actually in the Packaging drop-down; you just have to type it in. Again: thin wrapper. It may not work immediately after following the directions, but the divergences are generally due to the non-standard Domino-related dependencies. In particular, I ran into trouble with forbidden-access rules in Notes.jar - Maven, being a separate world, ignores your Eclipse preferences on the matter. To get around that, I added the parts in the plugin block of this pom.xml - among other things, they tell the compiler to ignore such problems. I still ran into trouble with lotus.domino.local.NotesBase specifically after the other classes started working, and I "solved" that by deleting the code (it was related to recycle checking, which I no longer need).

It may also be useful to change build.properties so that the output.. = bin/ line reads output.. = target/classes. I don't know if this is actually used, but it was a troubleshooting step I took elsewhere and it makes conceptual sense: Maven puts its output classes in target/classes, not bin.

During this process, I quickly realized the value of having a parent project. I had a hitch in mine in that I wanted to call the parent frostillicus.framework, which meant renaming the plugin to frostillicus.framework.plugin and dealing with the associated updating of Eclipse and git, but that was an unforced error. The normal layout of parent projects seems to be that they're parents both conceptually by pom.xml and also physically by folder structure. I haven't done the latter yet, and the process works just as well if you don't. Still, I should move it eventually. So, following the third part of the tutorial, I created a near-empty project (no Java code) just to house the pom.xml with common settings and told it to adopt the plugin as a child. Converting the feature project was the easiest step and went exactly as described in the tutorial.

Where I diverged from both the tutorial and ODA is in the Update Site. The tutorial suggests renaming site.xml to category.xml and using the Maven type eclipse-repository, but none of the examples I used did that. Instead, I followed those projects and left site.xml as-is (other than making sure that the versions in the XML source use ".qualifier" instead of any timestamp from building) and used the Maven type eclipse-update-site in the pom.xml.

I then spent about two hours pulling my hair out over bizarre problems I had wherein the update site would build but not actually include the compiled classes in the plugin jar if I clicked on "Build" in the site.xml editor and would fail with bizarre error messages if I did Run As → Maven Install. I'll spare you the tribulations and cut to the chase: my problem was that I had the modules in the parent project's pom.xml out of order, with the update site coming before the feature project. When I fixed that, I was able to start building the site the "Maven way". Which is to say: not using the site.xml's Build button (which still had the same problem for me), but using Run As → Maven Install. This ends up putting the built update site inside the target/site directory rather than directly in plugins and features folders. This is a case of "okay, sure" again.

Conclusion

So, after a tremendous amount of suffering and bafflement, I have a converted project! So what does it buy me? Not much, currently, but it feels good, and I had to learn this stuff eventually one way or another. Over the process, some aspects of Maven started to crystallize in my mind - the repositories, the dependencies, the module trees - and that helps me understand why other Maven-ized projects look the way they do. Other aspects are still beyond my ken (like most of the terminology), but it's a step in the process. This should also mean I'm closer to ready for future build processes and am more in line with the larger Java world.

If you have a similar project, I'd say it's not required that you make the switch, but if you're planning on working on larger projects that use Maven, it'd be a good idea. Maven takes a lot of getting used to, since everything feels like it's a from-scratch rethinking of the way to structure Java projects with no regard to the structure or terminology of "normal" Eclipse/OSGi development, and something like this conversion is as good a start down the path as any.

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