Building on ODA's Maven-ization

  • Mar 31, 2015

Over the weekend, I took a bit of time to apply some of my hard-won recent Maven knowledge to a project I wish I had more time to work with lately: the ODA. The development branches have been Maven-ized for half a year or so, but primarily just to the point of getting the compile to work. Now that I know more about it, I was able to go in and make great strides towards several important goals.

As a preliminary note: don't take my current implementations as gospel. There are parts that will no doubt change; for example, there are some intermittent timing issues currently with the final assembly. But the changes I did make have borne some early fruit.

Source Bundles

Over the releases, it's proven surprisingly fiddly to get parameter names, inline Javadoc, and attached source to work in Designer, leaving some builds no better off than the legacy API in those regards. The apparently-consistent fix for this is the use of "source" plugins: OSGi plugins that go alongside the normal one that just contain the source of each class. Those aren't too bad to generate manually from Eclipse, but the point of Maven is getting away from that sort of manual stuff.

Fortunately, Tycho (the OSGi toolkit for Maven) includes a plugin that allows you to generate these source bundles alongside the normal ones, by including this in the list of plugins executed during the build:

<plugin>
	<groupId>org.eclipse.tycho</groupId>
	<artifactId>tycho-source-plugin</artifactId>
	<version>${tycho-version}</version>
	<executions>
		<execution>
			<id>plugin-source</id>
			<goals>
				<goal>plugin-source</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
	</executions>
</plugin>

Once you have that (which I added to the top-level project, so it cascades down), you can then add the plugins to the OSGi feature with the same name as the base plugin plus ".source". Eclipse will give a warning that the plugins don't exist (since they exist only during a Maven build), but you can ignore that.

Javadoc

Javadoc generation is an area where I suspect I'll make the most changes down the line, but I managed to wrangle it into a spot that mostly works for now.

Not every project in the tree needs Javadoc (for example, we don't need to include docs for third-party modules necessarily), but it's still useful to specify configuration. So I took the already-existing basic config in the parent pom and moved it to pluginManagement for the children:

<pluginManagement>
	<plugins>
		<plugin>
			<!-- javadoc configuration -->
			<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
			<artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
			<version>2.9</version>
			<configuration>
				<failOnError>false</failOnError>
				<excludePackageNames>com.sun.*:com.ibm.commons.*:com.ibm.sbt.core.*:com.ibm.sbt.plugin.*:com.ibm.sbt.jslibrray.*:com.ibm.sbt.proxy.*:com.ibm.sbt.security.*:*.util.*:com.ibm.sbt.portlet.*:com.ibm.sbt.playground.*:demo.*:acme.*</excludePackageNames>
			</configuration>
		</plugin>
	</plugins>
</pluginManagement>

Then, I added specific plugin references in the applicable child projects:

<plugin>
	<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
	<artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId>
	<executions>
		<execution>
			<id>generate-javadoc</id>
			<phase>package</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>jar</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
	</executions>
</plugin>

With those, the build can generate Javadoc appropriate for consumption in the final assembly down the line.

Assembly

The final coordinating piece is referred to as the "assembly". The job of the Maven Assembly Plugin is to take your project components and output - built Jars, source files, documentation, etc. - and assembly them into an appropriate final format, usually a ZIP file.

The route I took is to add a distribution project to the tree whose sole job it is to wait until the other components are done and then assemble the results. The pom for this project primarily consists of telling Maven to run the assembly plugin to create an appropriately-named ZIP file using what's called an "assembly descriptor": an XML file that actually provides the instructions. There are a couple stock descriptors, but for something like this it's useful to write your own. It's quite a file (and also liable to change as I figure out the best practices), but is broken down into a couple logical segments.

First off, we have a rule telling it to include all files from the "src/main/resources" folder in the current (assembly) projet:

<fileSets>
	<fileSet>
		<directory>src/main/resources</directory>
		<includes>
			<include>**/*</include>
		</includes>
		<outputDirectory>/</outputDirectory>
	</fileSet>
</fileSets>

This folder contains a README description of the result as well as the miscellaneous presentations and demo files the ODA has collected over time.

Next, in addition to the source bundles mentioned earlier, I want to include ZIP files of the important project sources in the distribution, for easy access (technically wasteful, but not by too much):

<moduleSet>
	<useAllReactorProjects>true</useAllReactorProjects>
	<includes>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.domino</include>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.domino.xsp</include>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.formula</include>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.junit4xpages</include>
	</includes>
	
	<binaries>
		<attachmentClassifier>src</attachmentClassifier>
		<outputDirectory>/source/</outputDirectory>
		<unpack>false</unpack>
		<outputFileNameMapping>${module.artifactId}.${module.extension}</outputFileNameMapping>
	</binaries>
</moduleSet>

I use the "binaries" tag here instead of "sources" because I want to include the ZIP forms (hence unpack=false) - this is one part that may change, but it works for now.

Next, I gather the Javadocs generated earlier, but these I do want to unpack:

<moduleSet>
	<useAllReactorProjects>true</useAllReactorProjects>
	<includes>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.domino</include>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.domino.xsp</include>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.formula</include>
	</includes>
	
	<binaries>
		<attachmentClassifier>javadoc</attachmentClassifier>
		<outputDirectory>/apidocs/${module.artifactId}</outputDirectory>
		<unpack>true</unpack>
	</binaries>
</moduleSet>

This results in an "apidocs" folder containing the Javadoc HTML for each of those three projects in subfolders.

Finally, I want to include the built and ZIP'd Update Site for use in Designer and Domino:

<moduleSet>
	<useAllReactorProjects>true</useAllReactorProjects>
	<includes>
		<include>org.openntf.domino:org.openntf.domino.updatesite</include>
	</includes>
	
	<binaries>
		<attachmentClassifier>assembly</attachmentClassifier>
		<outputDirectory>/</outputDirectory>
		<unpack>false</unpack>
		<includeDependencies>false</includeDependencies>
		<outputFileNameMapping>UpdateSite.zip</outputFileNameMapping>
	</binaries>
	
	<sources>
		<outputDirectory>/</outputDirectory>
		<includeModuleDirectory>false</includeModuleDirectory>
		<includes>
			<include>LICENSE</include>
			<include>NOTICE</include>
		</includes>
	</sources>
</moduleSet>

While grabbing the Update Site, I also copy the all-important LICENSE and NOTICE files from this current project - these may be best moved to the resources folder above.

The result of all this is a nicely-packed ZIP containing everything a user should need to get started with the API:

Next Steps

So, as I mentioned, this work isn't complete, in large part because I'm still learning the ropes. I suspect that the way I'm gathering the sources in the assembly and generating and gathering the Javadoc are not quite right - and this shows in the way that slightly-different host configurations (like on a Bamboo build server or when doing a multi-threaded build) fail during packaging.

Additionally, it's somewhat wasteful to include the source plugins even for server distributions; I won't really lose sleep over it, but it'd still be ideal to continue the recent policy of providing ExtLib-style distinct Update Sites. I'm not sure if this will require creating multiple feature and update-site projects or if it can be accomplished with build profiles.

Finally, I would love to be able to get rid of the source-form third-party dependencies like Guava and Javolution. One of the main benefits of Maven is that you can very-easily consume dependencies by listing them in the config, but Tycho and Eclipse throw a wrench into that: when you configure a project to use Tycho, then Eclipse stops referencing the Maven dependencies. Moreover, even though I believe all of the dependencies we use contain OSGi metadata, which would satisfy a Tycho command-line build, both Eclipse and the requirement that we build an old-style (non-p2) Update Site prevent us from doing that simply. It's possible that the best route will be to have Maven download and copy in the Jar files of the dependencies, but even that has its own suite of issues.

But, in any event, it's satisfying seeing this come together - and nice for me personally to build on the work Nathan, Paul, and Roland-and-co. have been doing lately. Maven is a monster and still suffers from severe "how the F does this stuff work?" problems, but it does feel good to put it to work.

Auto-OSGi-ifying Maven Projects

  • Mar 28, 2015

In my last post, I discussed some of the problems that you run into when dealing with Maven projects that should also be OSGi plugins, particularly when you're mixing OSGi and non-OSGi projects in the same Maven build (in short: don't do that). Since then, things have smoothed out, particularly when I split the OSGi portion out into another Maven build, allowing it to consume the "core" artifacts cleanly, without the timing issue described previously.

But I ran into another layer of the task: consuming the Maven artifacts as plain Jars is all well and good, but the ideal would be to also have them available as a suite of OSGi plugins, so they can be managed and debugged more easily in an OSGi environment like Eclipse or Domino. Fortunately, this process, while still fairly opaque, is smoother than the earlier task.

A note on terminology: the term "plugin" can refer to both the OSGi component as well as the tools added into a Maven build. The term "bundle" aptly describes the OSGi plugins as well, but I'm used to "plugin", so that's what I use here. It's probably the case that an OSGi plugin is a specialized type of bundle, but whatever.

Preparing the Plugins

The route I'm taking, at least currently, is to tell the root Maven project that all of its Jar-producing children should also have a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file packaged along to allow for OSGi use, and moreover to automatically generate that manifest using the maven-bundle-plugin. The applicable code in the parent pom.xml looks like this:

<build>
    <pluginManagement>
        <plugin>
            <groupId>org.apache.felix</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-bundle-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>2.1.0</version>
            <configuration>
                <manifestLocation>META-INF</manifestLocation>
                <instructions>
                    <Bundle-RequiredExecutionEnvironment>JavaSE-1.6</Bundle-RequiredExecutionEnvironment>
                    <Import-Package></Import-Package>
                </instructions>
            </configuration>

            <executions>
                <execution>
                    <id>bundle-manifest</id>
                    <phase>process-classes</phase>
                    <goals>
                        <goal>manifest</goal>
                    </goals>
                </execution>
            </executions>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
            <artifactId>maven-jar-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>2.3.1</version>
            <configuration>
                <archive>
                    <manifestFile>META-INF/MANIFEST.MF</manifestFile>
                </archive>
            </configuration>
        </plugin>
    </pluginManagement>
</build>

In order to actually generate the manifest files, I included a block like this in each child project that produces a Jar:

<build>
    <plugins>
        <plugin>
            <groupId>org.apache.felix</groupId>
            <artifactId>maven-bundle-plugin</artifactId>

            <configuration>
                <instructions>
                    <Bundle-SymbolicName>com.somecompany.someplugin</Bundle-SymbolicName>
                </instructions>
            </configuration>
        </plugin>
    </plugins>
</build>

The Bundle-SymbolicName bit is there to translate the project's Maven artifact ID (which would be like "foo-someplugin") into a nicer OSGi version. There are other ways to do this, including just letting it use the default, but it made sense to write them manually here.

Once you do that and then run a Maven package, each Jar project in the tree should get an auto-generated MANIFEST.MF file that exports all of the project's Java classes and specifies a Java 6 runtime and no imported packages. There are many tweaks you can make here - any of the normal MANIFEST entries can be specified in the <instructions/> block, so you could add imported packages, required bundles, or other metadata at will.

If you install these projects into your local repository, then downstream OSGi projects using Tycho can find the dependencies when you include them in the pom.xml by Maven artifact ID and in the downstream MANIFEST.MF by OSGi bundle name. There's one remaining hitch (at least): though Maven will be fine with that resolution, Eclipse doesn't pick up on them. To do that, it seems that the best route is to create a p2 repository housing the plugins, which would also be useful for other needs.

Creating an Update Site

Fortunately, there is actually an excellent example of this on GitHub. By following those directions, you can create a project where you list the plugins you want to include as dependencies in the pom.xml, and it will properly package them into a p2 site containing all the plugins with their OSGi-friendly names and nice site metadata.

As a Domino-specific aside, a "p2 Update Site" is somewhat distinct from the Update Sites we've gotten used to dealing with - namely, it's a newer format that is presumably unsupported by Notes and Domino's outdated infrastructure. You can tell the difference because the "old" ones contain a site.xml file while the p2 format contains content.jar and artifacts.jar (those may be .xml instead). It's just another one of those things for us to deal with.

In any event, the instructions on GitHub do what they say on the tin, but I wanted a bit more automation: I wanted to automatically include all of the plugins built in the project without specifying them each as a dependency. To do this, I replaced Step 2 in the example (the use of maven-dependency-plugin) with the maven-assembly-plugin, which is a generic tool for culling together the results of a build in some useful format. The replaced plugin block looks like this:

<plugin>
	<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
	<artifactId>maven-assembly-plugin</artifactId>
	<version>2.5.3</version>
	<configuration>
		<descriptors>
			<descriptor>src/assembly/plugins.xml</descriptor>
		</descriptors>
		<outputDirectory>${project.basedir}/target/source</outputDirectory>
		<finalName>plugins</finalName>
		<appendAssemblyId>false</appendAssemblyId>
	</configuration>
	<executions>
		<execution>
			<id>make-assembly</id>
			<!-- Bump this up to earlier than package so that the plugins below see the results -->
			<phase>process-resources</phase>
			<goals>
				<goal>single</goal>
			</goals>
		</execution>
	</executions>
</plugin>

This block tells the assembly plugin to look for an assembly descriptor file (which is yet another specialized XML file format, naturally) named "plugins.xml" and execute its instructions during the phase where it's processing resources, coming in just before the later plugins.

In turn, the assembly descriptor looks like this:

<assembly
	xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/plugins/maven-assembly-plugin/assembly/1.1.2"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/plugins/maven-assembly-plugin/assembly/1.1.2 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/assembly-1.1.2.xsd">
	<id>plugins</id>
	<formats>
		<format>dir</format>
	</formats>
	<includeBaseDirectory>false</includeBaseDirectory>
	<moduleSets>
		<moduleSet>
			<useAllReactorProjects>true</useAllReactorProjects>
			<includes>
				<include>*:*:jar:*</include>
			</includes>
			<binaries>
				<outputDirectory>/</outputDirectory>
				<unpack>false</unpack>
				<includeDependencies>true</includeDependencies>
			</binaries>
		</moduleSet>
	</moduleSets>
</assembly>

What this says is to include all of the modules (Maven artifacts) being processed in the current build that are packaged as Jars and copy them into the designated directory, where they will be picked up by the Tycho plugins down the line.

The result of this Rube Goldberg machine is that all of the applicable plugins in the current build (and their dependencies) are automatically gathered for inclusion in the update site, without having to maintain a specific list.

Missing Pieces

This process accomplishes a great deal automatically, alleviating the need to maintain MANIFEST.MF files or a repository configuration, but it doesn't cover quite everything that might be needed. For one, there's no feature project; the update site is just a bunch of plugins without features to go along with them. Honestly, I don't know if those are even required for most uses - Eclipse seems capable of consuming the site as-is. Secondly, though, the result isn't suitable for use in an old-style environment, so this isn't something you would go plugging into Designer. For that, you'd want a secondary project that wraps the plugins into a feature in an old-style update site, which would have to be done in a second Maven build. Regardless, this seems to get you most of the way, and saves a ton of hassle.

Tycho and Tribulations

  • Mar 14, 2015

For the last few weeks, a large part of my work has involved dealing with Maven, and much of that also involves Eclipse. It's been quite the learning experience - very frustrating much of the time, but valuable overall. In particular, any time OSGi comes into play, things get very complicated and arcane, in non-obvious ways. Fair warning: this blog post will likely start out as an even-keeled description of the task at hand and descending into just ranting about Maven.

The Actors

To start out, it's important to know that this sort of development involves three warring factions, each overlapping and having distinct views of the world. In theory, there are plugins that sort out all the differences, but this doesn't play out very smoothly in reality. Our players are:

  • Maven. This is the source of our trouble, but overall worth it. Maven is a build system for Java (and other) projects that brings with it great powers to do with dependency management, project organization, packaging, distribution, and any number of other things. I've been increasingly dealing with it, initially as an observer while the ODA team descended into madness to convert that project, and then Maven-izing my own framework. Its view of the world is of "artifacts" - conceptual units like junit, poi, or other dependencies, plus your own project components - organized in a tree of modules and available via repositories. Its build process is a multi-stage lifecycle with hooks for plugins at each step of the way.
  • Eclipse. Eclipse-the-IDE has its own view of how a Java project should be organized and built, and it doesn't involve Maven. There is a plugin for Eclipse and Maven, m2eclipse, that is meant to patch over these differences, but it can only go so far - while it helps Eclipse know a bit about Maven dependencies and its plugins, it's very dodgy and often involves trying to sync the Eclipse build configuration to be an imperfect representation of the Maven config.
  • OSGi. OSGi is a packaging, dependency, and runtime model, and is spoken natively by Eclipse (and Domino). However, it butts heads with Maven: they both cover the "packaging and dependencies" ground, and this creates a mess. Again, there are plugins to help bridge the gap, but these bring another layer of complexity and brittleness to the process.

Maven, Eclipse, and OSGi go together like oil, water, and a substance that dissolves in water but reacts explosively with oil.

OSGi's Plugins

The interaction with OSGi deserves a bit of further explanation. Unlike the Maven/Eclipse bridge, where there's basically one tool to work with, imperfect as it is, dealing with Maven+OSGi has two distinct plugins, which may or may not be required for your needs:

  • Tycho. This is the big one, intended to give Maven a thorough understanding of OSGi's view of the world, parsing the MANIFEST.MF files and hunting down dependencies using both an OSGi environment and Maven's normal scheme (if you tell it to correctly). If you're writing a full-on Eclipse/OSGi plugin/feature set (like ODA or my Framework), Tycho will be involved.
  • The Maven Bundle Plugin. This confusingly-named plugin is specifically referring to "bundle" in the OSGi sense, which is the elemental form of an OSGi plugin (the terminology begins to really overlap here). Its role is to take a non-OSGi project - say, a "normal" Maven project you or a third party wrote - and generate a MANIFEST.MF for you, allowing you to create an OSGi-friendly project usable as a dependency elsewhere.

These two projects, though often both required, are not related, and are crucially incompatible in one major way: Tycho's dependency resolution runs before the Bundle Plugin can do its job. So you can't, for example, have a Bundle project that generates an OSGi-friendly plugin and then depend on it in a "real" OSGi context inside the same Maven build. As far as I can tell, the "fix" is to separate these out into separate Maven projects. So, if you want to consume Maven projects and convert them into OSGi plugins without also manually managing plugin stuff and dependency copying, you have to make it a two-step process. The reason for this is that computers suck.

Eclipse and Maven

Throughout this sort of development, there's a constant gremlin on your back: the distinct worlds of Eclipse and Maven. Many changes to the pom.xml (Maven's project descriptor file) will prompt Eclipse to tell you that its project config is out of date and that you must click a menu item to sync it, which it refuses to do itself for some reason. Additionally, you will frequently run into a case where you'll paste in a block of Maven XML from somewhere and it will be legal for Maven, but Eclipse will complain about not having lifecycle support for it. If you're lucky, you can click the "quick fix" to download an adapter automatically, or failing that tell it to ignore that part. Other times, it'll give you some cryptic error about packaging or the like and offer no solution. The "fix" at that point is often to stop trying to do what you want to do.

Because of these and other conditions, it's fairly easy to get into a situation where the project will compile in Eclipse but not in Maven or vice-versa. Sometimes, this isn't too bad to fix, such as when you just need to add a dependency to a given project in Maven. Other times, things will get more arcane, requiring seeking out more blocks of Maven XML (this is a common task) to either let Maven or Eclipse know about the other, or to at least tell Eclipse to not bother trying to process part of the Maven project. This process is most similar to an adventure game, trying different combinations of plugins and pasted XML until it works or you quit and try a different career path.

Documentation

Capping these problems off is the peculiar nature of documentation for all this. From my experience, it comes in a couple forms:

  • Official documentation that is either a very basic getting-started tutorial or assumes you have a complete understanding of Maven's conceits and idioms to read what they're talking about.
  • Individual plugin pages with varing levels of thoroughness, and usually no mention of interaction with other components.
  • Blog posts and Stack Overflow questions from 3-5 years ago, half of which amount to "X doesn't work", and most of the rest of which contain blocks of XML to try pasting into your pom without much explanation.

After working with Maven long enough, you start developing a vague, disjointed understanding of how it works - how the "plugins" inside "build" differ from those inside "pluginManagement", for example - but it's slow going. It seems to be the sort of thing where you just have to pay your dues.

Conclusion For Now

Things are very gradually coming together, and the benefits of Maven are paying off as I start avoiding the pitfalls and implementing things like Jenkins. Once I properly sort out the projects I'm working on, I'll post more about what I learn to be the right ways to accomplish these goals, but for now my assessment remains "Maven is a huge PITA, but overall probably worth it".

Quick Tip: Wrapping a lotus.domino.Document in a DominoDocument

  • Mar 3, 2015

In the XPages environment, there are two kinds of documents: the standard Document class you get from normal Domino API operations and DominoDocument (styled NotesXspDocument in SSJS). Many times, these can be treated roughly equivalently: DominoDocument has some (but not all) of the same methods that you're used to from Document, such as getItemValueString and replaceItemValue, and you can always get the inner Document object with getDocument(boolean applyChanges).

What's less common, though, is going the other direction: taking a Document object from some source (say, database.getDocumentByUNID) and wrapping it in a DominoDocument. This can be very useful, though, as the API on the latter is generally nicer, containing improved support for dealing with attachments, rich text and MIME, and even little-used stuff like getting JSON from an item directly. Take a gander at the API: com.ibm.xsp.model.domino.wrapped.DominoDocument.

It's non-obvious, though, how to make use of it from the Java side. For that, there are a couple wrap static methods at the bottom of the list. The methods are overflowing with parameters, but they align with many of the attributes used when specifying an <xp:dominoDocument/> data source and are mostly fine to leave as blanks. So if you have a given Document, you can wrap it like so:

Document notesDoc = database.getDocumentByUNID(someUNID);
DominoDocument domDoc = DominoDocument.wrap(
	database.getFilePath(), // databaseName
	notesDoc,               // Document
	null,                   // computeWithForm
	null,                   // concurrencyMode
	false,                  // allowDeletedDocs
	null,                   // saveLinksAs
	null                    // webQuerySaveAgent
);

Once you do that, you can make use of the improved API. You can also serialize these objects, though I believe you have to call restoreWrappedDocument on it after deserialization to use it again. I do this relatively frequently when I'm in a non-ODA project and want some nicer methods and better data-type support.