How I Want To Use Domino, Take 2

  • Oct 30, 2013

A while back, I wrote a post about how I wanted to use Domino. The gist of that was that I was enamored with the idea of using Domino as a back-end database, but not necessarily as a app-dev platform on its own - basically, how you would use a SQL or NoSQL database. Since then, I've doubled down on my use of XPages as an app-dev platform with many advantages, but I still find it very useful to imagine Domino not as "Notes apps on the web, now with a modern coat of paint", but as a collection of related but not mutually-required components competing with other web-dev stacks.

I started working on an updated take on that post, inspired by some recent posts and chat conversations I've had (and I may return to it), but then I ran across Grand Decentral Station, which is a vision of an OS/app-dev platform taking the best of the lessons of the last decade and turning them into a coherent platform. It's a compelling vision, and reading it made me realize something: most of those goals are describing Domino, or, more accurately, the Domino that could be. Take a look down the list and see how many points Domino goes about 80% towards:

  • App Installer & Updater: though Domino doesn't really handle app versions, the deployment strategy is nonetheless quite good, with all app code contained in a distinct NSF, not a bunch of files strewn in a couple directories.
  • Sandboxed apps: again, Domino doesn't quite sandbox apps, but appropriate use of ACLs can bring you close.
  • Mail server: I hear tell that Domino is capable of acting as a mail server.
  • Calendar server: with proper CalDAV support, Domino could act as a real calendar server for non-Notes clients like OS X and iOS.
  • Addressbook server: like with the calendar server, this is just a matter of adding CardDAV support.
  • Asset handling: CSS and JS optimization in XPages is a huge step in this direction.
  • Avatar server: the Directory can already act as a profile-picture server for Sametime, and something like mypic could standardize this use.
  • vCard server: well, it already serves LDAP.
  • Unified sessions: done.

And to cap this off, the prescribed per-app database is CouchDB, which is already modeled on Domino. And, of course, it already has a standard API for email, which conveniently doubles as a method of cross-app messaging in some cases, and its replication and clustering are top-notch. It's not, itself, an OS, but its fairly-cross-platform nature means that that problem is already "solved": install Domino on the server platform you're most comfortable with and it acts basically the same.

Of course, that final "20%" is, as always, the crux of the problem. Domino is only really a fully-integrated mail/contacts/calendar server when you use Notes or iNotes, XPages and legacy Domino dev are really the only games in town if you want to maintain the benefits of the NSF package, agents aren't integrated with the XSP environment and DOTS isn't a real replacement yet, there are still a number of items on the list not at all touched on by the existing stack, and licensing basically removes Domino from consideration for app development for anyone not already mentally invested in it. But hey, one can dream, no?

Thanks, Bruce

  • Oct 2, 2013

Though I'm not as eloquent on the matter as the many others who have shared their appreciation for what Bruce Elgort has done for the community, I wanted to be sure to pitch in as well. I have been active in this community for a relatively short amount of time, but even before that Bruce's was one of the names I knew looking in from outside, from his personal contributions to the Taking Notes podcast and to his leadership of OpenNTF. And since I started being actively involved in the community, all of my interactions with him have been not only pleasant, but encouraging and inspirational.

So: thanks, Bruce!

URLs in XPages

  • Oct 1, 2013

The topic of URLs came up today in a chat and in the most recent NotesIn9, and I think this is an area that deserves some particular attention. When designing any web app, it's easy to fall into some traps with URLs, and writing XPages code juggles things around a bit - some things are much easier than usual, some are insidiously harder.

At a base level, there are four main types of URLs you'll use when writing a web app, distinguished by how they begin (don't quote me on the names, or even whether or not they're technically called "URLs"):

  • Full-protocol URLs beginning with a protocol followed by a colon, such as
  • Protocol-relative URLs beginning with a double-forward-slash, such as // (these are fairly rare)
  • Server-relative URLs beginning with a forward-slash, such as /f.nsf/home.xsp
  • Page-relative URLs beginning with basically anything else, such as home.xsp

As a general rule, page-relative URLs are only a good idea if you are absolutely certain of the structure of your app relative to the URL the browser is using. The tricky part here is that it's very easy to write such a URL that works when you test it (say, pointing from one XPage to another with a URL like <xp:link value="otherXPage.xsp" text="Click me"/>), but fails in other situations. For example, see how such a URL would work when visiting each of these URLs, which all point to the same XPage:

Yes, the last one is legal - you can get to the stuff after the ".xsp" via facesContext.getExternalContext().getRequest().getPathInfo().

Fortunately, the XPage environment provides a nice solution to this problem: when using XSP elements, it converts the third type (server-relative URLs) from being relative to the server to be relative to the app. This is almost always1 what you want. So if I write a link as <xp:link value="/otherXPage.xsp" text="Click me"/>, it will work correctly in all of those situations.

Note the opening caveat: you have to be using XSP elements. Fortunately, this covers all WYSIWYG use and pretty much everything you're going to do elsewhere. It's rare that you actually want a stock-HTML <a/> instead of an <xp:link/>, and this includes resource URLs in an XPage, custom control, or theme. So, as a rule, you should almost always preface your in-app links with a forward slash to piggyback on this feature.

There are two cases that need special treatment: when you want to link out of your app from an XPage element and when you want to link into your app from a non-XPage element. Fortunately, there are two bits of non-obvious code that will do these jobs easily and reliably:

  • To break out of the app-relative "jail" in an XPage element, prefix your URL with "/.ibmxspres/domino/". For an explanation as to what this stands for and a list of similar prefix URLs, read Mastering XPages. For now, just know that that prefix means "get me out of here". So to link to, say, the directory, you could write a link like <xp:link value="/.ibmxspres/domino/names.nsf" text="Domain's Directory"/>.
  • To reliably reference the current app from a non-XPage link, use this bizarre EL formulation: ${facesContext.externalContext.requestContextPath}. What that gets you is basically like @WebDbName prefixed with a slash. So, for example, if you wanted to reference a video attached as a file resource, you could do something like <video src="${facesContext.externalContext.requestContextPath}/someVideo.mp4" />.

Keep in mind that the special XPage behavior applies only to when you're writing XSP markup (or otherwise pulling URLs into XPage elements); it doesn't apply to, for example, rich text or other HTML brought into the page.

And on a final, self-aggrandizing note, the "mentoring" offer in that NotesIn9 applies to me and my company. Feel free to contact us or get in touch with me directly if you're ever in need.

1. Except when writing CSS files. In CSS, URLs are relative to the location of the CSS file. This is usually just fine, since you, not the browser, control the URLs you use to refrence the CSS file. It gets tricky when you use resource aggregation, though.